This paper aims at creating and assessing the feasibility of OpenSees-based finite element (FE) model used to simulate the response of a pile foundation in liquefying ground. A range of sources has been adopted in the definition of model components of which its validity is assessed against case studies presented in literature. A simple lateral load test is at first considered without the presence of liquefaction which confirmed that the backbone force density-displacement (p-y) curve simulating lateral pile response is of sufficient credibility for relatively shallow piles. With the application of lateral spreading, the FE model produces results in correlation with that of a relatively simplified equivalent linear procedure in terms of pile displacement and bending moment. The use of a bi-linear moment-curvature relationship in approximation of the typical tri-linear concrete M-Φ curve was able to adequately capture the response of a reinforced concrete pile subject to free-field ground displacements in liquefied ground with a degradation factor of 0.01.
Modelling of pile response in laterally spreading liquefiable ground